3.1 For the first
phase of the study, the dependent variables were bullying and victims
of bullying. Three demographic variables were used in the study, namely
school type, gender and class. Four dimensions of self-concept were
also used, viz., physical, parental, academic and moral. A global measure
of academic efficacy was also used.
3.2 For the second
phase of the study, selected children from the three types of schools
were interviewed to solicit more information on bullying and being bullied.
Head-teachers, discipline teachers and chairpersons of the parent-teacher
associations were selected as respondents for the third phase of the
study. They were given six open-ended questions pertaining to the concept
of bullying, frequency of bullying incidents that occurred during the
last 12 months in their respective schools, what types of bullying that
took place, what types of children were involved in bullying, what were
the characteristics of victims, and how did each school handle these
3.3 This study
focused on primary school pupils from two districts, namely Kinta and
Hilir Perak. The number of national and national type (Tamil and Chinese)
schools is shown in Table 1. However, only 29 schools responded.
4.1 A total of
2528 primary school children from 29 schools participated in this study.
The majority of these children came from Tamil schools, followed by
National schools and finally Chinese schools. These children were from
standard four, five and six classes. Slightly more than half were boys.
4.2 More than half
of these children watched television between one to two hours on weekdays,
while the time spent on this activity was longer on weekends.
4.3 Based on the
20 items on bullying, the largest category of children was the psychological-physical
victim category (79.4%), followed by children who were involved in both
types of bullying (53.2%), bully-victims of both types (49.4%), non-bullies
(14.5%) and finally non-victims (8.6%).
4.4 Further analysis
into sub-categories of children showed more children to be involved
in psychological bullying (82.7%) compared to physical bullying (56.0%).
The percentage of being victims of psychological bullying and physical
bullying is about equal (85.8% for victims of psychological bullying
and 85.0% for victims of physical bullying). As for children who were
both bullies and victims, there were more psychological bully-victims
(77.7%), while those who were physical bully-victims were 53.6%.
4.5 Two forms of
psychological or indirect bullying that these children were more involved
were name-calling and teasing. Fighting with other students was the
most frequent form of direct or physical bullying. Threatening to hit
and kick others were the least frequent of this type of direct bullying.
4.6 Results of
ANOVA for both forms of bullying and victims of bullying showed significant
difference according to school type. Results of post hoc analysis showed
the mean score for National schools to be the highest for psychological
bullying and the difference in the mean score was significantly higher
than that of Chinese or Tamil schools.
4.7 As for physical
bullying, the mean composite score for National schools was significantly
lower than that of Chinese or Tamil schools. The mean composite score
for physical bullying was highest for Chinese schools, followed by Tamil
schools and National schools, in that order.
4.8 The results
showed more boys to be involved in both forms of bullying as well as
being victims of direct and indirect bullying.
4.9 More of standard
six children were involved in psychological and physical bullying as
well as being victims of both forms of bullying and the difference in
the mean scores for both dimensions of bullying and victims of bullying
were significantly different. The mean scores for all dimensions of
bullying and victims of bullying were significantly different from one
4.10 A large majority
(88.7%) did not feel easy looking at other children being bullied, while
11 percent admitted to having no feeling to looking at others being
bullied. As for the bullies, a large majority (60%) of them felt guilty
after bullying others, while about a third symphatized with the victims
. Only a small minority felt great bullying others.
4.11 The results
showed a high percentage of bullying occurred in the classroom (40.9%)
which happened mainly before teachers came for classes (25.8%). High
incidents of bullying also took place on the way back from school (23.9%).
Computer labs and science labs did not witness much incidents of bullying.
4.12 Almost half
of the school bullies were boys and the majority of them were older
than the victims. Incidents of bullying by girls showed about 20 percent
of them were involved. A small group of bullies who were younger than
their victims was also present. About a third of boys admitted bullying
4.13 The scenario
for bullying outside the school ground was almost similar to what happened
inside school, except with a slightly reduced percentage.
4.14 The mean score
for academic efficacy was 64.46 and a standard deviation of 24.61. Fifty-nine
percent of children put their academic efficacy at 79 and below, while
40 percent put their academic ability at above 80 percent, with 5 percent
at above 95 percent. There was no significant difference in the mean
scores for boys or girls.
4.15 The results
showed these children to be high on two dimensions of self-concept,
namely parental and moral self-concept. However, their physical and
academic self-concepts were just average.
4.16 Physical self-concept
was significantly different according to class at p < .05. The mean
score for standard six children was significantly higher (29.03) than
that of standard four children (28.24) but not significantly different
from that of standard five children (28.40).
4.17 The mean score
for physical self-concept was about equal for boys and girls. Results
of t-test for this variable was not significantly different according
4.18 Almost three-fourths
(74.8%) of respondents belonged to high category of parental self-concept,
about one-fourth (24.1%) were average on this construct and only a small
percentage (1.1%) came under low parental self-concept. The mean score
for physical self-concept came under the high category.
4.19 Parental self-concept
was significantly different according to school type. The mean score
for parental self-concept was slightly higher for girls. However, the
difference in the mean scores was not significant.
4.20 The results
showed almost half (47.5%) of respondents belonged to high academic
self-concept, about half (52.5%) were average on this construct and
only a small percentage (1.8%) came under low parental self-concept.
The mean score for academic self-concept came under the average category.
4.21 Academic self-concept
was significantly different according to school type. However, this
construct was not significantly different according to class or gender.
4.22 The results
showed 60 percent of respondents belonged to high category for moral
self-concept. About one-third (34.8%) were average on this construct
and only a small percentage (.9%) came under low moral self-concept.
The mean score for moral self-concept under the high category.
4.23 Moral self-concept
was significantly different according to school type and gender. However,
there was no difference for this construct according to class.
4.24 Out of 14
variables in the regression equation, 10 of them were significantly
correlated with indirect bullying.
4.25 Of the 14
variables used in the equation, nine of them were significantly correlated
with direct bullying. Among the significant variables were hours spent
on watching television, negative moral self-concept, negative academic
efficacy, gender, feeling unsafe while in school were significantly
related with bullying behaviour.
4.26 Eight of the
independent variables used in the regression model for being victims
of indirect bullying were significant.
4.27 Eight variables
in the regression model for being victims of direct bullying were significant.
4.28 During the
last twelve months of the study, 40 adult respondents reported the number
of bullying cases as about ten in their respective school. Twelve respondents
reported no bullying cases had ever been reported in their school.
seemed to be the most popular way of handling bullying problem, followed
by advice. This was followed by giving warning to those involved and
contacting parents. For serious cases, the schools would contact those
from higher authority or the police. Advice from their respective parent-teacher
associations. For more serious cases, schools would not hesitate using
the cane on the bullies.
5.1 There is a
serious need for the authorities, especially the Ministry of Education,
to investigate this issue further and plan on a long term basis to address
this important issue. If this problem is not addressed adequately, it
will bring far reaching negative consequences on the children, as reported
in the literature.
5.2 The authorities,
particularly the Ministry of Education, need to focus on the classrooms
to make them to be safe places for children and also to provide the
conducive environment in the classrooms to conduct teaching and learning
5.3 Teacher education
programmmes, both pre-service and in-service, need to further emphasize
the importance of preparing teachers to be able aware, monitor incidences
of bullying, and take appropriate measures to overcome this problem.
5.4 There needs
to be systematic efforts to provide the necessary support to implementers
on the field to tackle this issue. The most important implementers on
the field are the school administrators and teachers.
5.5 There is a
need to provide ongoing professional development opportunities to further
improve the abilities of school principals and teachers to handle the
issue of bullying in schools.
5.6 Since this
study found that the number of hours spent on watching television either
on weekdays or weekends was related with both forms of bullying, there
is a need to conduct further research on this aspect, especially to
ascertain the relationship between the types of television programmes
watched and the incidences of bullying.
5.7 Further research
should be undertaken to ascertain the link, if at all there is any,
between the experiences of being bullies and bully-victims and more
violent behaviour in later years.
5.8. Research should
also focus on how reformers and teachers could work together in formulating
and implementing new policies, given the socio-political situations
in the country.